People Innovation Excellence


The perception is the experience of objects, events, or the relationships obtained by summing up the information and interpreting the message. The perception is that gives meaning to the sensorial stimuli (sensory stimuli). The sensation is part of perception. Perception, as well as the thrill factor is determined by the personal and situational factors. Other factors that influence perception, i.e. attention. (1)

According to the opinion of some experts as for sense perception is: Slameto (2003:102) states, “The perception is the process that concerns the inclusion of messages and information in the human brain. Information and the received message appears in the form of a stimulus that stimulates the brain for further processing which then affect someone in behave “. (2)

Perception is part of the whole process that produces a response that where once the stimulus applied to humans. The sub process is the introduction, feelings, and reasoning. perception and cognition is required in all the psychological activities. Sense and reason is not part of any situation that needs stimulus-response, though most of the responses of individuals who knowingly and freely to one stimulus, considered influenced by reason or emotion or both.(3)

Perception of color can give an advantage to a particular purpose. Each color gives a different perception, therefore, in choosing colors for specific purposes need more observed to produce the expected effects. The color can be applied to the joints. On the branding of products, places to stay, posters, highway, etc.(5)

The Internal factors that influence perception, i.e. the factors contained in the individual, which includes several things, among others:

1. Physiological.

Information through our senses, then the information retrieved will this affect and complement efforts to give meaning to the environment around it. Sensory capacity to do perception in each person is different so the interpretation of the environment can also be different.

2. Attention.

The individual requires a certain amount of energy is expended to pay attention or focus on the physical and mental facilities that exist on an object. The energy of each person is different so that one’s attention towards objects are also different and this will affect the perception of a object.

3. Interest.

Perception towards an object varies depending on how much energy or perceptual vigilance that is moved to mempersepsi. Perceptual vigilance is the tendency of a person to pay attention to the particular type of stimulus or can be said to be of interest.

4. Direct needs.

These factors can be seen from how strong an individual searching for objects or messages that can provide answers to correspond with him.

5. Experiences and memories.

The experience can be said depending on the memory in the sense of the extent to which a person can recall the events of the past to figure out a stimulation in that sense.

6. Mood.

Emotional state affects the person’s behavior, mood shows how feelings of a person at a time can affect how a person in a receiving, react and remember. (3)

There are also some external factors that can make a human individual has differences of perception of color namely factors of color itself. Basically it is the most visible electromagnetic waves which can be seen by humans. Sunlight for example, emit electromagnetic waves and humans can only see at the wavelengths or Spectra seems only. The spectrum can be seen of man is the spectrum of the emitted wave “appears to be from the Sun (white) which can then be decomposed into red, green, blue, purple with Prism.(6)

Objects can be seen because of several factors, namely: light sources, conducting media, objects/subjects, and sensor/detector. The fourth factor is absolutely intertwined to generate the image of an object can be seen by the human eye.(6)

The treatment of matter to light there are several kinds, namely: reflected, refracted, and occurs.absorbed just passed on, there is also some material that can emit a beam of light that has been returned by merging. This treatment will be different against the material and will be combined on an object that is composed of many materials.(6)

Change one’s perception of color can be caused by factors of the disease i.e. deuteranopia. Deuteranopia is a condition where one cannot distinguish certain colors of some kind. In severe cases, the person cannot even distinguish colors at all, which is a condition that is more rare, and commonly called achromatopsia. Deuteranopia, or also commonly referred to as color blind (partial), usually not too severe but rarely strikes a lot of people in a variety of levels. Instead of seeing a certain color, usually a person with this disorder patients see only opaque color when the color is supposed to look. In many cases, a person with this disorder cannot see the colors red and green, which makes the patients people with this disorder cannot distinguish the colors. Light and dark levels from those colors can also affect how difficult the patient person with this disorder can distinguish two colors. (4)

One of the other internal factors that can cause a difference in the perception of color is a factor of gender, where men are more susceptible vision on color. According to eye experts and children’s health at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City, Dr. Miesha Frempong, color blindness is most commonly caused due to genetic factors. (7)

“The problem of hard to see the colors present on the X chromosome,” said Dr. Frempong. A female has two X chromosomes. Men just one. If the X chromosome of the male is ugly, he did not have a backup so that it is more exposed to its effects, “he said.(7)

Color blindness occurs when there is a specific gene mutation that inhibits the ability of pigment on the optic nerve to identify colors. Cells called cones located in the retina. One pigment just disappear, then someone would have difficulty distinguishing colors.(7)

Sufferers of color blindness is usually difficulty distinguishing certain colors category, such as merah-hijau or blue-yellow. In a rare case, the sufferer sees only black and white colors. The case most frequently found is merah-hijau, and until now there has been no therapy to normalize the disorder.(7)

To diagnose his patient Frempong using chips with various degrees of color and colored dots. The chip bearing a number that can only be read when the patient is able to distinguish red and green.(7)

Knowing early on color blindness would be helpful because a study found color blind have an impact on the ability of the child. The best age to test vision is before the age of four years.(7)

Just as our physical strength decreases with increasing age, our eyes also shows age related decline in performance – especially as we reach our 40s 60 and so on. Some changes, such as age related eye presbiopia, which is perfectly normal and does not indicate any disease process. While cataracts can be considered age-related diseases, they are very common among senior and can be easily repaired with cataract surgery.(8)

Some of us, however, will experience more serious eye diseases related to age which has great potential to affect the quality of our lives as we grow older. These conditions including glaucoma, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopati.(8)

Other internal factors that affect the perception of color is nutrition. Nutritional adequacy of a person affects the ability of one’s vision.

According to the National Institutes of health (National Institute of Health/NIH), deform the body most feared by humans is blindness. In the United States alone, four million people are at risk of becoming blind due to macular decline process (yellow point of the retina), age-related disease that there has not been a cure which led to decreased functioning of the retina, the part that is sensitive to the rays in the the eye.(9)

Cataracts associated with increasing age, in which the eye lens becomes hazy, cause the world spend billions of dollars each year and have been attacked around 50 per cent of persons aged 50 years and over in developing countries. High blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes are less controllable has been damaging to the eye, or literally, making the other millions of people blind.(9)

Vitamin A is most real nutrients associated with healthy eyes. Vitamin A deficiency can result in quickly damage the eyes at night that is usually called “low vision”. Relationship between Vitamin A/rabun night was discovered in 1930, though the condition has been known since the time of ancient Egypt and be treated with liver, which is rich in vitamin A, which is cooked. Although eating carrots will not make Your vision such as RADAR, Vitamin A it contains can help eyes beyond his capacity to prevent low vision night.(9)

Molecules berpigment and brightly colored, known as ‘ carotenoid ‘ (the word carrot/carrot comes from that Word), and ‘ flavonoids ‘ (the Group of aromatic compounds that include a variety of pigments that are present in nearly all fruits and vegetables as well as in plants used for traditional medicinal herb material, including ‘ Schizandra, Rosemary and Billbery ‘. This molecule acts as an anti oxidant free radicals or cleaners. In the same way as how they protect plants from ultraviolet radiation, these molecules can protect the lens or retina of the eye from the age and value of free radical damage with regard to the environment.(9)

David Williams, a Professor of medical optics and Director of the Center for Visual Science is very surprised by the results of his research. William and his research team led by Heidi Hofer, Assistant professor at the University of Houston, uses a laser-based system that maps the topography of the inner part of the eye with the details. The technology called adaptive optics, usually used by astronomers at telescopes to compensate for the light of a star look blurry due to atmospheric effects.(5)

See firsthand the retina that life allows researchers to shine light directly into the eye to see what kind of wavelength is reflected and absorbed by each Cone, and with what color the cone responsive. In addition, this technique allows scientists to take over a thousand images of cones in a time that gives the appearance of the composition and distribution of color cone which has never happened before in the eyes of human beings who live with the structure of the retina.(5)

Each subject was asked to set the color of a disc of light to produce a pure yellow light yellow not reddish or greenish. Almost everyone chose the same wave length, yellow, indicates a clear consensus how they perceive yellow. After Williams staring at their eyes, she was shocked to see that the number of cone which detects red, green, yellow and sometimes scattered throughout the retina and sometimes almost non-existent. The difference is the ratio of the 40:1 conjecture, but all the volunteers apparently saw the same yellow color.(5)

Early experiments showed that everyone is tested the same color experience although there are great differences in the front end of their visual system. This indicates a type of normalization or automatic calibration mechanism is found in the brain to balance color, no matter the tool used.(5)

In other experiments, William and his friend, Yasuki Yamauchi, working with researchers from the Medical College of Wisconsin. They give some people to wear colored contact lenses for 4 hours a day. When wearing contact lenses, people tend to feel like they don’t wear contact lenses, like when people wear sunglasses that tend to see the colors are “true” after a few minutes of usage. Normal color vision volunteers began to change after a few weeks the wearing of contact lenses. Even when not using contact lenses, they begin to choose pure yellow color that has a different wavelength than before they wear contact lenses. (5)

Over time, the perception of natural yellow color can change. This proves that kalibrator of perception of color is internal and automatic. The experiment shows that the color defined by the experience in the world, and because we share the same world, we have the same definition of color. (5)


Writen by : Osmund Gunawan PDE/2001604542


  • Goldstein (2009) pp. 5–7

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