The latest robots and technologies of the future
Automotive Robotics Engineering (ARE) Program in BINUS ASO School of Engineering (BASE), has emphasized its students to be aligned with the latest update and technologies.
One of the benchmark perspectives that need to be considered, as illustrated in this article, constitutes molecular robots, as research fields in Hokkaido University. Subsequently, the wider perspective constitutes the elaboration of Pro Robots, pertaining the latest robots and technologies of the future.
Source and adapted from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/04/220420151403.htm
and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JVk59Pw-xw . Ultimately, the solid science base on this article is referring to journal references of M. Akter, J. J. Keya, K. Kayano, A. M. R. Kabir, D. Inoue, H. Hess, K. Sada, A. Kuzuya, H. Asanuma, A. Kakugo. Cooperative cargo transportation by a swarm of molecular machines. Science Robotics, 2022; 7 (65) DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.abm0677
Pro Molecular robots, as research fields in Hokkaido University
Scientists have demonstrated that molecular robots are able to accomplish cargo delivery by employing a strategy of swarming, achieving a transport efficiency five times greater than that of single robots.
In a global first, scientists have demonstrated that molecular robots are able to accomplish cargo delivery by employing a strategy of swarming, achieving a transport efficiency five times greater than that of single robots.
Swarm robotics is a new discipline, inspired by the cooperative behavior of living organisms, that focuses on the fabrication of robots and their utilization in swarms to accomplish complex tasks. A swarm is an orderly collective behavior of multiple individuals. Macro-scale swarm robots have been developed and employed for a variety of applications, such as transporting and accumulating cargo, forming shapes, and building complex structures.
A team of researchers, led by Dr. Mousumi Akter and Associate Professor Akira Kakugo from the Faculty of Science at Hokkaido University, has succeeded in developing the world’s first working micro-sized machines utilizing the advantages of swarming. The findings were published in the journal Science Robotics. The team included Assistant Professor Daisuke Inoue, Kyushu University; Professor Henry Hess, Columbia University; Professor Hiroyuki Asanuma, Nagoya University; and Professor Akinori Kuzuya, Kansai University.
A swarm of cooperating robots gains a number of characteristics which are not found in individual robots — they can divide a workload, respond to risks, and even create complex structures in response to changes in the environment. Microrobots and machines at the micro- and nano-scale have very few practical applications due to their size; if they could cooperate in swarms, their potential uses would increase massively.
The team constructed about five million single molecular machines. These machines were composed of two biological components: microtubules linked to DNA, which allowed them to swarm; and kinesin, which were actuators capable of transporting the microtubules. The DNA was combined with a light-sensitive compound called azobenzene that functioned as a sensor, allowing for control of swarming. When exposed to visible light, changes in the structure of azobenzene caused the DNA to form double strands and led to the microtubules forming swarms. Exposure to UV light reversed this process.
The cargo used in the experiments consisted of polystyrene beads of diameters ranging from micrometers to tens of micrometers. These beads were treated with azobenzene-linked DNA; thus, the cargo was loaded when exposed to visible light and unloaded when exposed to UV light. However, the DNA and azobenzene used in the molecular machines and the cargo were different, so swarming could be controlled independently of cargo-loading.
Single machines are able to load and transport polystyrene beads up to 3 micrometers in diameter, whereas swarms of machines could transport cargo as large as 30 micrometers in diameter. Furthermore, a comparison of transport distance and transport volume showed that the swarms were up to five times more efficient at transport compared to the single machines.
By demonstrating that molecular machines can be designed to swarm and cooperate to transport cargo with high efficiency, this study has laid the groundwork for the application of microrobots to various fields. “In the near future, we expect to see microrobot swarms used in drug delivery, contaminant collection, molecular power generation devices, and micro-detection devices,” says Akira Kakugo.
The above molecular robots are based upon empirical implementation and ultimately based upon the journal references of M. Akter, J. J. Keya, K. Kayano, A. M. R. Kabir, D. Inoue, H. Hess, K. Sada, A. Kuzuya, H. Asanuma, A. Kakugo. Cooperative cargo transportation by a swarm of molecular machines. Science Robotics, 2022; 7 (65) DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.abm0677
Further illustrations are elaborated further in the following references from Hokkaido University https://www.global.hokudai.ac.jp/blog/molecular-robots-work-cooperatively-in-swarms/
Pro Robots’ elaboration on the latest robots and technologies of the future
The aforementioned elaboration constitutes the elaboration of Pro Robots, pertaining the latest robots and technologies of the future. Precisely, for further curiosity the following video can at least accommodate further need to explore and eventually implement.