Top Humanoid Robotics 2021: Mechanics and Geometry of Humanoid Robotics

The effects of mechanical system dynamics are deemed disregarded in the design process of Humanoid Robots, as elaborated by Kenji Hashimoto, in his scholar work in 2020. In this design process, sophisticated control methods are conveying some limitations of the mechanical structure. To some extent, principal constraints of the system performances are originated from inadequate mechanical architecture. Therefore, it is indispensable to develop robot hardware that behaves to some extent imitate to an ideal model and that can be modeled from the lens of mechanics.

To some extent, the Humanoid Robotics are implemented as well in home environment, with the warm interaction with children and adult, eventually to dog as well. Thus, it is indispensable to have design process of humanoid robotics as similar and as flexible as the anatomy of the human skeleton, to perform assigned activities at home.


  1. Hashimoto, K. (2020). Mechanics of Humanoids. Advanced Robotics.
  1. Yamaguchi J, Takanishi A, Kato I. (1995) Experimental development of foot mechanism with shock absorbing material for acquisition of landing surface position information and stabilization of dynamic biped walking. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics andAutomation, Nagoya, Japan; p. 2892–2899.
  1. Pajon A,Caron S, Magistri G,et al. (2017) Walking on gravel with soft soles using linear inverted pendulum tracking and reaction force distribution. Proceedings of IEEE-RAS International Conference of Humanoid Robots, Birmingham, UK; 2017. p. 432–437.
  2. Hattori Y, Yamaguchi J. Legged locomotion robot, controlling method for it, and relative movement measuring sensor for it. Pat. JP2001-277159. Sony Corp. and Yamaguchi J; 2001.
  3. Kato K, Koike G, Tosaka S, et al. Control method of the leg, legged mobile robot. Pat. WO03/068455. Sony Corp.and Yamaguchi J; 2003.
  4. Shimada H, Matsumoto K. (2008) Leg type mobile robot. Pat. JP2008-272846. Toyota Motor Corp
  5. Ebihara Y. (2006) Foot part structure of bipedal walking robot. Pat. JP2006-218550. Toyota Motor Corp;

Yamaguchi et al. in his practical implementation, develop a novel foot mechanism, along with a shock absorbing material for  acquisition of landing surface position information. In this characteristics, a biped robot with the proposed foot mechanism is able detect the landing surface and adapt to unknown uneven terrain.

Pajon et al.  propose a closed-loop controller stabilizing humanoid robots by the time it is walking with soft soles which enabling it to  absorb impacts and cast ground unevenness during locomotion on rough terrains. Subsequently, it generates other distinctive foot mechanisms, as it  has  been patented by companies.

Honda proposes a number of foot mechanisms to reduce the landing impact. At this point, Sony and Yamaguchi also file many patent applications such as a foot mechanism equipped with a sensor to measure the relative movement, or slippage, between the robot foot and the ground, as indicated by Hattori.

Subsequently,  Sony and Yamaguchi  propose a foot mechanism aiming to secure the posture stability of a biped robot by passively adapting to various road surfaces, as indicated by Kato. Other patent applications byToyota describe a  foot system that is able to measure the distance between the foot and the ground, as indicated by Shhimada, and a foot structure making a biped robot fall inside, as indicated by Ebihara.

Furthermore, in lieu of merely elaborating Mechanics of Humanoids, it is indispensable to elaborate the Geometry of Humanoid Robotics. Precisely, as the diction mentions, the Geometry of Humanoid Robotics implements the physical world work through the robot to using of  machine learning and artificial intelligences.